WATER CONTEXT

                                                                            

 

Turkey is located between 26 ° - 45 ° eastern longitudes and 36 ° - 42 ° northern latitudes .

Borders of Turkey

The Borders and Coastline of Turkey (km)
Bulgaria : 269
Greece : 203
Georgia : 276
Armenia : 328
Azerbaijan/Nakhichevan: 18
Iran : 560
Iraq : 384
Syria : 911
Total Length ofLland Borders: 2,949
 
Black Sea : 1,778
Sea of Marmara : 1,275
Aegean & Mediterranean: 4,763
Total Length of Coastline: 7,816




Total Borders & Coastline : 10,765

 
Note: Coastlines of islands are not included.
  • Turkey posseses a number of different characteristics in terms of its geographical location. The total length of its land borders and coastline is 10,765 km, 2,949 km of which are the land borders while 7,816 km are the coastline. Turkey has borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the west, with Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan/Nakhichevan, and Iran to the east, and with Iraq and Syria to the south.
  • The border with Bulgaria ( 269 km) extends from the mouth of the Rezve Stream in the Black Sea to the north west of Edirne. The border with Greece( 203 km) extends along the Meriç River, passing around Edirne and Karaağaç and emptying into the Aegean Sea to the west of Enez. The total length of the border with Georgia( 276 km), the border with Armenia( 328 km) and Azerbaijan/Nakhichevan border ( 18 km) is 622 km, beginning from Sarp Village and extending along the Arpaçay and Aras rivers. The border with Iran ( 560 km) follows the summits of high mountains with extending up to the Kelsim Breach at the beginning of the Iraq border. The border with Iraq( 384 km) ends at the point where the Tigris and Habur rivers meet after passing through high and mountainous territory in the vicinity of Hakkari. The border with Syria( 911 km) runs immediately south of the Baghdad Railway, reaching the Mediterranean in Güvercinkaya.
  • The average altitude ( 1,132 m) of Turkey is higher than that ( 1,050 m) of Asia and three and a half times higher than that ( 330 m) of Europe. The elevation of Turkey increases from the west to the east. The altitude of Ulus, the centre of Ankara, is 875 m. The altitude of plains in the eastern region rises to 2,000 m.
  • Turkey ’s surface area is 780,000 km 2, namely 78 million hectares (Mha). Excluding the total area of reservoirs and lakes, Turkey’s land area is 769,600 km 2. Excluding mountainous areas which cover a little more than half of the total land area, Turkey has plains, plateaux, steep and rugged land, and flat hills. Plains of different altitudes covered with alluvium amount to 19 Mha. Plateaux cover 8 Mha. The total area of plains and plateaux is equal to 27 Mha, which is 30% of Turkey’s land. Rugged terrains with flat, wide hills amount to 10 Mha. Since agricultural operations are often relatively easy in these type of rugged terrains, 10 Mha might be added to 27 Mha as flat lands. Therefore, Turkey has about 37 Mha of flat lands. However, Turkey’s total agricultural area is about 28 Mha. The General Population Census of 2000 indicates that Turkey has a population of 67.8 million in a total of 81 provinces. The average population density is 88 persons per square kilometer.
Rivers and Lakes
  • Turkey has about 120 natural lakes, including small lakes in the mountains. The largest and deepest lake is Lake Van with a surface area of 3,712 km 2 and an altitude of 1,646 m from sea level. The second largest lake is Lake Tuz in central Anatolia. Being relatively shallow, this lake is at an altitude of 925 m from sea level and has a surface area of 1,500 km 2. There are four main regions where lakes are intensively dispersed: The “Lakes District” (Eğirdir, Burdur, Beyşehir, and Acıgöl Lakes), Southern Marmara (Sapanca, İznik, Ulubat, and Kuş Lakes), Lake Van and its environs, and Lake Tuz and its environs. Although some of the lakes are only a few meters in depth, some of them are of a depth of more than 30 meters. The depth of Lake Van is more than 100 m.
  • Turkey has 555 large dam reservoirs. The names and surface areas (km2) of the large ones are Atatürk (817), Keban (675), Karakaya (268), Hirfanlı (263), Altınkaya (118), Kurtboğazı (6).
     
  • Turkey is rich in terms of streams and rivers. Many rivers rise and empty into seas within Turkey’s borders. Rivers can be classified in relation to the sea into which they empty. The rivers emptying into the Black Sea are the Sakarya, Filyos, Kızılırmak, Yeşilırmak, and Çoruh. The rivers emptying into Mediterranean Sea are the Asi, Seyhan, Ceyhan, Tarsus, and Dalaman. The rivers emptying into the Aegean Sea are the Büyük Menderes, Küçük Menderes, Gediz, and Meriç. The rivers empting into the Sea of Marmara are the Susurluk/Simav, Biga, and Gönen. The Euphrates and Tigris rivers empty into the Gulf of Basra, while the Aras and Kura rivers empty into the Caspian Sea. As far as the lengths of the some major rivers are concerned, the Kızılırmak is 1,355 km, Yeşilırmak is 519 km, Ceyhan is 509 km, Büyük Menderes is 307 km, Susurluk is 321 km, the Tigris is 523 km, the Euphrates River up to the Syrian border is 1,263 km, and the Aras River up to the Armenia border is 548 km.

Climate

  • Turkey has a semi-arid climate with some extremities in temperature. Turkey is surrounded by seas on three sides and high mountains stretching along the Black Sea coast in the north and along the Mediterranean Sea coast in the south. Distance from sea and fluctuations in altitude result in climatic variance within short distances. Temperature, precipitation and winds vary, based on climatic features. The difference in the north to the south latitude (6 0) also plays a role in this temperature change. The southern coastal fringes enjoy the Mediterranean climate featuring hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. The northern coastal fringes are of the Black Sea climate, which is mild and rainy in almost all seasons. Surrounded by high mountains, Central Anatolia features a steppe climate with little precipitation and daily and yearly temperature values differing significantly. Winters are long and cold in Central and Eastern Anatolia, while mild and short in coastal regions.

“Precipitation varies by far with respect to the region and period.”

  • Especially the mountainous coastal regions receive abundant precipitations (1,000–2,500 mm/year). Inner parts away from coastal fringes receive relatively less precipitation. Precipitation is 500–1,000 mm/year in the Marmara and Aegean regions and in the plateaux of East Anatolia. Most parts of Central Anatolia and Southeastern Anatolia have precipitation only 350–500 mm annually, whereas the environs of Lake Tuz receive the lowest precipitation level (250–300 mm/year).
  • Snow falls in almost every region of Turkey, but the number of days on which it snows and the durations of snow cover vary considerably with regard to the regions. It snows less than one day a year in the Mediterranean Region while more than 40 days in Eastern Anatolia on average. The duration of snow cover is less than one day in the Mediterranean and Aegean coastal fringes, 10–20 days in the Marmara and Black Sea coastal areas, 20–40 days in Central Anatolia, and 120 days in the Erzurum and Kars provinces in Eastern Anatolia. Throughout the four seasons, higher parts of the mountains retain snow, which melts slowly, feeding rivers and ground waters.
  • On account of its geographical features, Turkey has four distinctive seasons. Variation in altitude up to 5,000 m causes different climatic conditions in the same season.


 
LAND RESOURCES
 
  Mha ( million hectares)

Arable Land

Irrigable Land

Rainfed Agriculture

Economically
Irrigable

Presently Irrigated

: 28.05

: 25.75

: 17.25

: 8.50


: 4.90
 

 

Land Resources

  • Turkey ’s total land area is 78 Mha. Almost one third of this, 28 Mha, can be classified as cultivable land. Recent studies indicate that an area of about 8.5 million ha is economically irrigable under the available technology. Until now, an area of about 2.8 million ha has been equipped with irrigation infrastructures by DSİ.

Water Resources

Mean Precipitation : 643 mm/m2

Turkey ’s Surface Area : 780,000 km 2

 Annual Water Resources Potential Bm ³ (billion m ³ )A Precipitation Volume : 501

B Evaporation : 274

C Leakage into Groundwater : 69

D Springs Feeding Surface Water : 28

E Surface Water from Neighboring

Countries : 7

F=A-B-C+D+E

F Total Surface Runoff (gross) : 193

G Exploitable Surface Runoff : 98

H Groundwater Safe Yield : 14

I=G+H

I Total Potential (net) : 112

  • The total water volume in the world amounts to 1.4 billion km3, 97.5% of which is saline water in the oceans and seas, 2.5% of which is fresh water in the rivers and lakes. Due to fact that 90% of fresh water exists in the South Pole and North Pole, human beings have very limited readily exploitable fresh water resources.
  • Annual mean precipitation in Turkey is 643 mm, which corresponds to 501 Bm 3 (billion m 3) of annual water volume in the country. A volume of 274 Bm 3 water evaporates from water bodies and soils to atmosphere. 69 Bm 3 of volume of water leaks into groundwater, whereas 28 Bm 3 is retrieved by springs from groundwater contributing to surface water. Also, there are 7 billion m 3 volume of water coming from neighboring countries. Thus, total annual surface runoff amounts to a volume of 193 Bm 3 of water.

 

  • Including 41 (69-28) Bm 3 net discharging into groundwater (covering safe yield extraction, unregistered extraction, emptying into the seas, and transboundary), the gross (surface and groundwater) renewable water potential of Turkey is estimated as 234 (193+41) Bm 3. However, under current technical and economic constraints, annual exploitable potential has been calculated as 112 Bm 3 of net water volume, as 95 Bm 3 from surface water resources, as 3 Bm 3 from neighboring countries, as 14 Bm 3 from groundwater safe yield.

Water Resources versus Water Consumption Needs of Population

  • Countries can be classified according to their water wealth:
    • Poor: Annual water volume per capita is less than 1,000 m3
    • Insufficient / Water Stress: Annual water volume per capita is less than 2,000 m 3
    • Rich: Annual water volume per capita is more than 8,000- 10,000 m3
  • Turkey is not a rich country in terms of existing water potential. Turkey is a water stress country according to annual volume of water available per capita. The annual exploitable amount of water has recently been approximately 1,500 m 3 per capita.
  • The State Institute of Statistics (DİE) has estimated Turkey’s population as 100 million by 2030. So, the annual available amount of water per capita will be about 1,000 m 3 by 2030. The current population and economic growth rate will alter water consumption patterns. As population increases, annual allocated available amount of water per person will decrease. The projections for future water consumption would be valid on the condition that the water resources were protected from pollution at least for the next 25 years. It is imperative that available resources be evaluated rationally so as to provide clean and sufficient water resources for the next generation.

Planning Studies in Turkey

  • Under the scope of DSİ’ planning studies, the most appropriate formulations of projects are prepared by using long-term data collections and investigations.
  • Data collection activities in planning studies are implemented with the coordination of different engineering fields consisting of gauging, observation, survey, soil and drainage, agricultural economy, hydrology, environmental impact assessment, geology, mapping and material studies.

  • The Hydrometeorology network of DSİ comprises the following stations; 1,114 river flow measurement, 120 lake water level, 115 snow level gauge, 452 meteorological and 1,000 water quality measurement. From those stations, hydrological and meteorological variables such as river flows, groundwater and lake water levels, sediment loads, water quality, amount of precipitation, and evaporations are collected and monitored.

DSİ’s River Flow and Lake Observation Stations


 

  • In 2003, 40.1 billion m 3 volume of water was consumed in various sectors in Turkey; 29.6 billion m 3 in the irrigation sector, 6.2 billion m 3 in the water supply sector, 4.3 billion m 3 in the industrial sector. This sum corresponds to development of only 36.5% of the available exploitable potential of 112 billion m 3. With ongoing studies, it is aimed at using the maximum portion of available potential in the country.

Hydraulic Structures in Turkey

  • According to the standards of ICOLD (International Committee on Large Dams), providing a dam’s height from foundation is more than 15 m or its reservoir volume is equal or more than 3 hm 3, this dam is classified as a “large dam”. As seen from the table below, the number of large dams constructed by DSİ is 544. If eleven large dams constructed by other institutions are added to this, the total number amounts to 555 dams. DSİ has built 201 large dams within the framework of large-scale water projects, while the remaining 343 dams are within the framework of the smaller-scale water projects. The total reservoir capacity of these 212 large dams is about 139.5 km 3. The details on water resources development can be seen in the table:

IN OPERATION

UNDER CONSTRUCTION OR IN PROGRAM

January 1, 2005

By DSİ

Other

Total

By DSİ

Other

Total

DAM (unit)

544

11

555

209

1

210

(large-Scale Water Projects)

201

11

212

85

1

86

(Small-Scale Water Projects)

343

-

343

124

-

124

HEPP (unit)

53

82

135

53

17

70

(Installed Capacity-MW)

10,215

2,416

12,631

8,982

465

9,447

(Annual Generation-GWh)

36,481

8,844

45,325

29,581

1,725

31,306

Small Dams (unit)

47

617*

664

1

43*

44

IRRIGATION (million ha)

2.77

2.12

4.89

0.8

-

0.8

WATER SUPPLY (billion m 3 )

2.50

0.46

2.96

1.09

-

1.09

FLOOD CONTROL AREA (million ha)

1.0

-

1.0

0.5

-

0.5

(*)Small dams built by the General Directorate of Rural Services (GDRS abrogated now) for irrigation.

  • According to ICOLD standards, there are at present 555 large dams, in Turkey. According to crest types, these dams can be classified as follows:
  • Rock or earth-filled types: 537 dams
  • Concrete gravity types: 8 dams (Çubuk I, Elmalı II, Sarıyar, Kemer, Gülüç, Porsuk, Arpaçay, Karacaören)
  • Arch types : 6 dams (Gökçekaya, Oymapınar, Karakaya, Gezende, Sır, Berke)
  • Composite (Concrete Faced Rock-Fill Dam –CFRD or RCC) types: 4 dams (Kürtün, Birecik, Karkamış, Keban)

Dams and Hydropower Plants Developed by other Organizations

 

Name of the Dam and HEPP

Province

Year of Completion

Installed Capacity

(MW)

Average Annual Generation (GWh)

Water Supply

(hm 3)

Irrigation Area (ha)

Berke

Adana

2001

510

1,668

Sarıyar

Ankara

1956

160

400

10,000

Manavgat

Antalya

1988

48

220

Karacaören II

Burdur

1993

47

206

Elmalı II

İstanbul

1955

 

2

Darlık

İstanbul

1988

108

Alaçatı

İzmir

1997

3

Sır

K.Maraş

1991

284

725

Kirazdere

Kocaeli

1999

142

Gülüç

Zonguldak

1966

6

Birecik

Ş.Urfa

2000

672

2,518

92,700

TOTAL

1,721

5,737

261

102,700

Note: Run-off river/canal hydroelectric power plants that have been built by various companies and institutions are excluded from this table.

  • Total installed capacity (MW) and annual average generation (GWh) of hydroelectric power plants (run-off river HEPPs) completed by the other organizations are 2,416 MW and 8,844 GWh respectively . These values account for 20% of Turkey’s current hydropower installed capacity (12,631 MW) and annual hydroelectric generation (45,325 GWh). The HEPPs put into operation by DSİ generate 80% of Turkey’s current hydro energy needs. According to DSİ’s investment program in 2005, there is a total of 53 HEPPs, 24 of which will be realized with bilateral agreements (6,136 MW and 20,203 GWh) and 5 of which are to be realized with local bidding (124 MW and 458 GWh), and the remaining 24 of which are under construction (2,722 MW and 8,920 GWh). The number of hydroelectric power plants being constructed by other organizations under Law No. 3096 is 17 (465 MW and 1,725 GWh). These are being built as Autoproducer or BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) models by the private sector.

  • Since its establishment in 1954, DSİ has made investments of US$ 33.5 billion, and the total benefit from these projects realized by DSİ in the sectors of energy, agriculture, services, and the environment is estimated as US$ 81 billion. These projects have made a more than two fold contribution to the national economy when considering their investment costs.

IN THE SECTOR OF AGRICULTURE : US$ 39.0 billion

  • IN THE SECTOR OF ENERGY : US$ 30.0 billion
  • IN THE SECTOR OF SERVICES : US$ 12.0 billion
    TOTAL : US$ 81.0 billion

 

DAMS & HEPPs CONSTRUCTED AS LARGE-SCALE WATER PROJECTS

1. Çubuk I

2. Gölbaşı

3. Gebere

4. Elmalı II (*)

5. Sarıyar (*)

6. Seyhan

7. Ayrancı

8. Kemer

9. Hirfanlı

10. Demirköprü

11. Sille

12. May

13. Mamasın

14. Apa

15. Seyitler

16. Çubuk II

17. Selevir

18. Bayındır

19. Cip

20. Kızılsu

21. Almus

22. Kesikköprü

23. Gülüç (*)

24. Tatların

25. Buldan

26. Altınapa

27. Kurtboğazı

28. Akkaya

29. Gümüşler

30. Onaç I

31. Altınyazı

32. Akköy

33. Sarımsaklı

34. Sürgü

35. Musaözü

36. Gölköy

37. Çaygören

38. Damsa

39. Kesiksuyu

40. Alakır

41. Kadıköy

42. Kozan

43. Kartalkaya

44. Porsuk

45. Enne

46. Ömerli

47. Devegeçidi

48. Hasanlar

49. Gökçekaya

50. Atıkhisar

51. Yalvaç

52. Karamanlı

53. Karaçomak

54. K. Kalecik

55. Tahtaköprü

56. Medik

57. Çoğun

58. Keban

59. Korkuteli

60. Dodurga

61. Çorum

62. Yapıaltın

63. Maksutlu

64. Kaymaz

65. Afşar

66. Ataköy

67. Balçova

68. Süloğlu

69. Asartepe

70. Karaidemir

71. Hasanuğurlu

72. Bozkır

73. Sevişler

74. Güzelhisar

75. Suatuğurlu

76. Kunduzlar

77. Uluköy

78. Alibey

79. Doğancı

80. Kültepe

81. Demirtaş

82. Gökçeada

83. Arpaçay

84. Boztepe

85. Söğüt

86. Topçam

87. Aslantaş

88. Berdan

89. Alaca

90. Belpınar

91. Oymapınar

92. Uluborlu

93. Hasanağa

94. Çamlıdere

95. İvriz

96. Yedikır

97. Germeçtepe

98. Kalecik

99. Kozağacı

100. Sarıbeyler

101. Tayfur

102. Kayalıköy

103. Kozlu

104. Ağcaşar

105. Kayaboğazı

106. Çatören

107. B. Çekmece

108. Karakaya

109. Manavgat (*)

110. Çakmak

111. Gödet

112. Güldürecek

113. Gölova

114. Ketsel

115. Kovalı

116. Hancağız

117. Zernek

118. Altınkaya

119. Geyik

120. Gökçe

121. Darlık (*)

122. Tercan

123. Altınhisar

124. Kapulukaya

125. Sarayözü

126. Karacaören I

127. Yarseli

128. Hacıhıdır

129. Ürkmez

130. Uzunlu

131. Mumcular

132. Polat

133. Kılıçkaya

134. Menzelet

135. Adıgüzel

136. İkizcetepeler

137. Yahyasaray

138. Gezende

139. Çavdarhisar

140. Derbent

141. Yapraklı

142. Koçköprü

143. Patnos

144. Dumluca

145. Gayt

146. Mursal

147. Çamköy

148. Göksu

149. Sarımehmet

150. Sır (*)

151. Atatürk

152. Büyükorhan

153. Eğrekkaya

154. Sultansuyu

155. Murtaza

156. Beyler

157. Gazibey

158. Örenler

159. Küre-Çatak

160. Gelingüllü

161. Seferihisar

162. Sultanköy

163. Kızılcapınar

164. Karacaören II (*)

165. Nergizlik

166. Kuzgun

167. Demirdöven

168. Kırklareli

169. Yaylakavak

170. Tahtalı

171. Gönen

172. Bayramiç

173. Çavdır

174. Çatalan

175. Sazlıdere

176. Alaçatı (*)

177. Madra

178. Çat

179. Kralkızı

180. Armağan

181. Dicle

182. Çamlıgöze

183. Yenihayat

184. Karaova

185. Erzincan

186. Bademl

187. Özlüce

188. Yayladağ

189. Sıddıklı

190. Bakacak

191. Batman

192. Çamgazi

193. Akyar

194. Yenice

195. Karkamış

196. Kirazdere (*)

197. Çayboğazı

198. Sorgun

199. Birecik (*)

200. Kızıldamlar

201. Gökpınar

202. Palandöken

203. Berke (*)

204. Derinöz

205. Kürtün

206. İmranlı

207. Küçükler

208. Ayhanlar

209. Dört Eylül

210. Bahçelik

211. Suğla Dep

212. Koruluk

  • With the budget allocation for 2005, DSİ needs 19 years to complete the projects in its investment program. For the full development of the water projects in Turkey, as seen in the table below, US$ 71.5 billion is needed for completion of the remaining projects. Considering development rates in the country, there is still much work to do in the water sector. By taking into account the investment budget of DSİ (annual US $1.65 billion), it is estimated that the completion of the works (US$ 71.5 billion budget) to be realized by DSİ could only be possible in the next 44 years.

 

DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATION, HYDROPOWER, AND WATER SUPPLY SECTORS IN TURKEY

 

IN OPERATION

AS OF 2005

ULTIMATE GOALS

BY 2030

EACH SECTOR’S DEVELOPMENT RATES

DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATION

4.9 million ha

8.5 million ha

58%

DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROELECTRIC

ENERGY

45.3 billion kWh

127.3 billion kWh

36%

DEVELOPMENT OF WATER SUPPLY FOR DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL USE

10.5 billion m 3

38.5 billion m 3

27%

 

  • In conclusion, the distribution of precipitation in Turkey is rather uneven. The average annual precipitation ranges from less than 250 mm in inland areas to 2,500 mm in parts of the Eastern Black Sea coast. Though Turkey generally has adequate amounts of water, it is not always in the right place and at the right time to meet present and anticipated needs. The rivers have generally irregular regimes and natural flows cannot always be diverted directly. The average annual precipitation, evaporation, and surface runoff vary with respect to time and geography. Approximately 70% of total precipitation falls from October to March; there is little effective rain during the summer months. Therefore, it is necessary to have storage facilities in order to ensure domestic, industrial and agricultural supply, and hydropower generation. In addition, dams make a considerable contribution to control the floods and erosion.
  • The water resources development projects of DSİ are accepted as crucially important works for the improvement of the welfare and happiness of the people in the country. It is a well-known fact that the main source of daily food, drinking water, and electricity depend on water resources development projects. That is why Turkey has to develop all of her water potential to maintain adequate living standards for the people.
  • Agriculture in Turkey heavily depends on climatic conditions, the adverse effects of which can only be minimized by developing hydraulic structures. DSİ contributes to the development of agriculture in which 35% of Turkey’s population is employed by investing mostly in development of irrigation sector. As the production and consequently the income of our farmers increases because of irrigation development, there are further inputs to agro-industries. Because of this, water resources development has a crucial role to play in the socioeconomic development of Turkey. Thus, DSİ’s investments in hydropower, which is a national source of the electricity needed by industry are important in that they are able to lessen the rate of migration to the cities and to decrease the unemployment in the country.
  • DSİ needs a certain amount of financing to complete its planned projects in the sectors of energy, agriculture, services, and environment by 2030. This additional financing requirement is estimated at US$ 71.5 billion (as 27.5 in agriculture, 21.0 in energy, 20.0 in services, and 3.0 in environment). With the completion of these planned projects, Turkey foresees to have US$ 27.8 billion worth of gross income annually.

 

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